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欧盟渴望新鲜空气

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Ambient air quality is poor in many EU Member States – despite an obligation for governments to ensure good air quality for citizens.尽管各国政府有义务确保公民的良好空气质量,但许多欧盟成员国的环境空气质量仍然很差。 The situation is so serious that the Commission is currently taking action against 17 States with a consistent record of poor air quality.局势是如此严重,以至于委员会目前正在对XNUMX个空气质量差的国家采取行动。

今天,作为解决这一问题的新方法的一部分,保加利亚,拉脱维亚和斯洛文尼亚被迫紧急解决这一持续存在的问题,每年造成的死亡人数比道路交通事故还多。

The problem concerns tiny particles known as PM10s, which can cause respiratory problems, lung cancer and premature death.问题涉及称为PM10的细小颗粒,这些细小颗粒可能导致呼吸系统问题,肺癌和过早死亡。 Poor air quality is a direct threat to citizens exposed to pollution from fine particles (PM56), which originates from sources such as road traffic, industrial activity and domestic heating.空气质量差是受到暴露于微粒(PM10)污染的公民的直接威胁,PMXNUMX的污染源于道路交通,工业活动和家庭取暖。 According to the latest research, a majority (XNUMX %) of Europeans believe that air quality has deteriorated in the last XNUMX years.根据最新研究,大多数欧洲人(XNUMX%)认为在过去XNUMX年中空气质量已经恶化。

In the past, the Commission has successfully taken Italy, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden to Court for failing to ensure good air quality for citizens.过去,由于未能确保公民享有良好的空气质量,委员会已成功将意大利,葡萄牙,斯洛文尼亚和瑞典送上法庭。 But the Court rulings that resulted only covered the failure to comply with air quality limit values in the past, providing little incentive for Member States to act on future exceedances.但是,法院的裁决仅涵盖了过去未能遵守空气质量限值的情况,这几乎没有激励会员国采取行动应对未来的超标情况。

A fresh approach is therefore being taken, enlarging the scope of the legal action.因此,正在采取一种新的方法,扩大了法律诉讼的范围。 The aim now is to urge Member States with on-going air quality problems to take forward-looking, speedy and effective action to keep the period of non-compliance as short as possible.现在的目的是敦促存在持续空气质量问题的会员国采取前瞻性,迅速和有效的行动,以使不遵守规定的时间尽可能短。 The Commission is particularly concerned with cases where non-compliance with EU law has lasted for more than 5 years and is forecast to continue in the future.委员会特别关注不遵守欧盟法律已经持续XNUMX年以上,并且预计将来还会继续发生的情况。 Under EU law, Member States are obliged to take all the necessary measures to improve air quality, and to make this information available in form of air quality plans.根据欧盟法律,成员国有义务采取一切必要措施来改善空气质量,并以空气质量计划的形式提供这些信息。 Failure to do so will result in legal action.否则将导致法律诉讼。

与PM10排放超标有关的成员国总数为奥地利,比利时,保加利亚,捷克共和国,德国,希腊,西班牙,法国,意大利,匈牙利,拉脱维亚,葡萄牙,波兰,罗马尼亚,瑞典,斯洛伐克和斯洛文尼亚。

今天针对保加利亚,拉脱维亚和斯洛文尼亚采取的行动(从技术上来说是正式的正式通知书)符合2012年10月对比利时采取的类似措施,以及即将对环境中PMXNUMX含量持续升高的所有其他成员国采取的法律行动。空气。

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Airborne particles (PM10) are mainly present in pollutant emissions from industry, traffic and domestic heating.空气中的颗粒物(PM2008)主要存在于工业,交通和家庭取暖的污染物排放中。 They can cause asthma, cardiovascular problems, lung cancer and premature death.它们会引起哮喘,心血管疾病,肺癌和过早死亡。 Directive 50/40/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe requires Member States to limit the exposure of citizens to these particles.关于欧洲的环境空气质量和清洁空气的第3/50 / EC号指令要求成员国限制公民接触这些颗粒物。 The legislation sets limit values for exposure covering both an annual concentration value (3 μg/m35), and a daily concentration value (XNUMX μg/mXNUMX) that must not be exceeded more than XNUMX times in a calendar year.法规设定了暴露限值,该限值包括年度浓度值(XNUMXμg/ mXNUMX)和日浓度值(XNUMXμg/ mXNUMX),在日历年中不得超过XNUMX次。

自该法规于2005年生效以来,PM10的限值在17个成员国中未得到遵守-AT,BE,BG,CZ,DE,EL,ES,FR,HU,IT,LV,PT,PL,RO ,SE,SK和SL。

PM10 limit values were to be met by 2005 (or, in the case of Romania and Bulgaria, from the date of accession), although Member States could ask the Commission to extend the time for meeting the standards until June 2011. Such exemptions were subject to a number of conditions.尽管成员国可以要求委员会将达到标准的时间延长至XNUMX年XNUMX月,但PMXNUMX限值必须在XNUMX年前达到(或者对于罗马尼亚和保加利亚,从加入之日起)。有很多条件。 Most importantly, Member States had to present an air quality plan setting out the relevant abatement actions during the extension period and demonstrate that they had taken all the necessary steps to achieve compliance by the extended deadline.最重要的是,会员国必须提交一份空气质量计划,列出在延长期内的相关减排行动,并表明它们已采取所有必要步骤以在延长的截止日期之前实现履约。

以前,针对违反空气质量要求的成员国采取的法律行动是基于违反该指令第13条的规定,这要求成员国不得超过PM 10的限值。新方法也涵盖了该指令的第23条。挑战许多会员国未能制定具体的空气质量计划,而该计划应制定适当的措施,以使超限期尽可能短。

欧盟立法的执行是欧盟委员会的优先任务,特别是因为减少有害污染物的不必要延误可能意味着对人类健康的持续损害。

 

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EU Reporter 发表来自各种外部来源的文章,表达了广泛的观点。 这些文章中的立场不一定是欧盟记者的立场。
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