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俄罗斯

冻结俄罗斯资产以支付战争损失

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Numerous war crimes committed by Russian occupiers in Ukraine, as well as Russian missile attacks against Ukraine’s civilian energy infrastructure, have once again confirmed the terrorist nature of Russia’s actions. It is crystal clear that Russia and its oligarchs must compensate Ukraine for the losses and cover the costs of rebuilding the country because every crime must have its own punishment.

The announcement that Germany is ready to use frozen Russian assets to help Ukraine has added new impetus to the reparations discussion. Chancellor Olaf Scholz’s government supports Ukraine’s demand for war reparations but has not yet taken an official position on confiscating assets from Russia. If Berlin can sort out the questions on this issue, it could give new impetus to the debate in the European Union and put pressure on the U.S. to also confiscate Russian assets.

First and foremost, it concerns the reserves of the Russian Central Bank, which were frozen at the beginning of Russia’s genocidal invasion of Ukraine. Many countries around the world froze Russian assets in response to the aggression against Ukraine. Only the assets of the Central Bank of Russia have been blocked for several hundred billion dollars and euros. Before Russia’s war against Ukraine, asset freezing was seen as a temporary political act of support, but Russian terror in Ukraine forced many to reconsider and go further.

At the moment, there are no laws in the EU that allow the disposal of frozen money of foreign countries. Although there are precedents in the world. For example, the U.S. blocked the accounts of Afghanistan after the Taliban seized power. This year, the administration of President Biden decided to use a portion of the frozen funds to help the residents of Afghanistan. They established a fund and opened an account in a Swiss bank. The fund will be able to make payments for critical imports for the country and make payments on Afghanistan’s debts to international financial institutions.

乌克兰提出了自己的以俄罗斯资产为代价的补偿计划,其中专门规定没收资产。 乌克兰当局毫不怀疑,俄罗斯将对乌克兰无端发动的种族灭绝战争和乌克兰基础设施的破坏进行赔偿。 这些赔款的来源可能不仅是俄罗斯央行冻结在外国银行的黄金和外汇储备,还有其他资产。 有不同的资产块,因此有不同的保护它们的机制。 赔偿决定应由一项国际条约正式确定,这将简化许多法律问题并保护各国免受俄罗斯随后的诉讼。

俄罗斯联邦对乌克兰造成的损失数额难以计算,因为乌克兰当局无法进入受俄罗斯侵略影响最严重且仍处于占领下的领土。 例如,马里乌波尔和顿巴斯被占领土。 因此,很难给出具体的损失数字,但我们谈论的是至少数千亿美元的总额。 据欧盟委员会主席估计,乌克兰的损失高达 600 亿欧元。 乌克兰总统泽连斯基表示,重建乌克兰将耗资超过一万亿美元。 但俄罗斯的恐怖仍在继续,最终的损失可能会更大。 俄罗斯必须为自己造成的一切损失买单,并为战后重建买单。 欧盟和美国的努力应着眼于找到一种法律机制,以便尽快没收资产或将其用作抵押品,在适当的时间范围内以适当的数额为乌克兰的重建提供资金。

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EU Reporter 发表来自各种外部来源的文章,表达了广泛的观点。 这些文章中的立场不一定是欧盟记者的立场。

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